Software Development is the procedure of developing the computer software programs using specified language. It provides different steps for creating the software such as programming, designing, testing, bug fixing etc.
Types of Software:
There are different types of software development. They are as follows:
1. System Software
System Software is also known as operating system. All the components of the system are controlled by the system software. It allows computer to translate the inputs into machine reading language. Some popular operating systems are Windows, Mac OS, Linux based Ubuntu.
2. Application Software
Application software is nothing but the applications which are used in the computers and the smart devices. Media players, Internet Browsers etc are some examples of the application software.
3. Embedded Software
Embedded software are the another part of the system software. This type of software is used to control the machines and the devices. It is the part of IOT i.e. Internet of Things. Industrial robots, telecommunication networks are some examples of embedded software.
Phases of Software Development (SDLC):
There are series of steps for developing the software. These steps are called as life cycle of the software development i.e. SDLC. SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. Every phase is the input of the next phase of life cycle.
1. Requirement Gathering and Analysis
The initial phase of developing the software is to gather the requirement. It is the base of software development. In this phase, all the relevant information must be collected from the customers so that it is easy to develop the product as per customer’s requirement.
After getting the entire requirement from customers’ side, it goes for analysis. In this phase developers, Quality assurance, testers and project managers are involved. Once the entire requirement gets understood by the team, the complete information is put into a document known as SRS I.e. Software Requirement Specification. This document is also share with the customer for reference.
The Design phase is the input of the next phase of the model. This phase gives the solution of “How to build the software?” In other words, it defines the basic architecture of the software.
The list of requirement is used to make the design choices. Once the requirement is established then the next team is ready to decide the design of the software. It defines the complete architecture modules along with its data flow representation.
In this phase the actual development of the software is getting started. Once the design document is ready, then the developer starts to build the entire system using programming language according the required software. All the components are built in this step. Developer must follow all the guidelines and need to use the programming tools like interpreter, compiler etc.
Development is the longest phase of the SDLC process. And also it is an important phase for the developer.
Once the coding is done, then the software goes to the next phase i.e. testing. Software testing is also an important phase. Here, in this phase, it is ensured that every module is working properly. All the defects, bugs are found and solved in this phase. Testers checks and confirms all the modules in the software is working according to the requirement of the customer.
5. Deployment and Maintenance
When all the tasks of the testing team are done and they confirm that the software is working properly, then the software is ready to deliver to the customer.
After the deployment of the software to the customer, maintenance team is ready for further process. If there is any issue regarding the software, it is given to the maintenance team to resolve it.
All phases of the SDLC are frame in various models, called as SDLC Models. There are various models for developing the software. During the development process, one of the modules is followed by the developer. Some SDLC models are:
1. Waterfall Model
Waterfall model is work according to the waterfall. Its flow is decided. It is a sequential life cycle model. It is very simple and easy to understand. In this, every phase must be completed before going to the next phase. It is the first process model for software development.
2. Iterative Model
In this model, the complete requirement is divided into different modules. Each module suffers from every phase of the software development life cycle until all the requirements are fulfilled. In this model, detailed planning is not required in iterations. The advantage of the iterative model is, all the defects are solved in early stage and as it divided into smaller parts, it is easy to manage.
3. Spiral Model
Spiral model is the combination of the waterfall model and the iterative model. It is widely used model in software industry. It is suited for only large projects.
Basically software development is done in specific process known as Software Development Life Cycle. It includes various phases like Requirement gathering and analysis, Designing, Development, Testing, Deployment and Maintenance. Each phase is framed in various models like Waterfall Model, Iterative Model, Spiral Model, Prototype Model, V-Shape Model, Agile Model etc. Developer decides which model is used for the development and developed the software.