Internet Of Things

Internet Of Things

Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT is the latest technology in the networking world. It creates a global network of machines and devices capable of communicating and exchanging information via the Internet.

What is IoT?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of objects embedded with a variety of sensors, software, or other technologies. The purpose of this connectivity is to exchange data with other devices or systems on the Internet.
Simply put, IoT is all about connecting the physical world to the Internet.


It is a system of objects connected to the Internet that is able to communicate with each other without human intervention.
IoT generates information about connected objects, analyzes them, and makes decisions. The Internet of Things is smarter than the Internet.

Key components of IoT:

It is a framework that connects the physical world to the digital world. For this connectivity, the following key components are used:

  • Sensors and smart devices
  • Connectivity
  • Data processing
  • User interface

1. Sensors and smart devices

The most important and basic thing for IoT is sensors and smart devices. Without these things you can't do any connectivity. These are the components of the device connectivity level. Sensors and devices are connected and communicate with each other through IoT.
Sensors are constantly collecting data from devices or the environment and transmitting information to the next level. Multiple sensors can be used in devices to do many things besides sensing. Sensors can be of different types.

  • motion sensors
  • Temperature sensors
  • Light sensors
  • Moisture sensors
  • RFID tags
  • Pressure sensor etc.

2. Connectivity

In this, the data collected by sensors or devices is sent to the cloud. Sensors and devices send this data to the cloud via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular networks and many other means of communication.

Each of these communication channels has its own bandwidth, range, power consumption, and data transfer rate. So for IoT, it is important to choose the best connectivity option.

3. Data processing

Once the data is collected, it is sent to the cloud and then processed. The following data processing cycle is used for this - "Input -> Process -> Output"
Input - This is the first step in the data processing cycle. At this stage, the collected data is converted to machine readable format. So that, the computer can works on that data. This is the most important step because the output depends entirely on this data.
Process – This is the phase where the data is actually processed. In this, A computer transforms the raw data into information and this information is carried out with different techniques such as – Classification, Sorting or Calculation.

  1. Classification – Data is classified into different categories or groups.
  2. Sorting – Data is arranged in specific order (i.e. alphabetical, numeric)
  3. Calculation – Arithmetic or logical operations are performed on the numeric data
Output – Last stage of processing is Output of the given data. In this phase the data is transform into human readable language. Output may be various formats. Data may be is in graphs, charts, and numeric data or in text etc. Output data can be stored for future use. It might be input for next data processing.

User interface

We have discussed how data is collected by sensor devices, sent to a cloud service and transformed into useful information. Now, it’s important to deliver the information to the end user. And this is done by user interface (UI).
User interacts with the computer system via user interface. In an IOT, user gets information via alarms, notifications through messages or emails.
According to the application there are various types of user interfaces. If there are cameras in home, then user can actively check the recordings via web server. Depending on the IOT application or their complexity, user can take action which affects on the system. For example, user can adjust the temperature of AC via mobile phone. Or if user forgets to switch off any electric application then he is able to take control of the appliances remotely.
In some situations, devices are worked automatically without human interaction. Automatic Doors is one of the examples of IOT. When sensor detects any human near doors it automatically opens for them it closes automatically.

Benefits of IOT

IOT is the latest technology which connects devices with each other. Some of the benefits are as follows:

  • Extra data means better decisions
  • Easy to track and monitor the things
  • Reduce the workload
  • Saves money and resources
  • Better and easy life